1,5-Anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), the 1-deoxy form of glucose, has been measured and used clinically in Japan for over a decade to monitor short-term glycemic control. Evaluation of glucose control otherwise requires measuring plasma glucose or glycated proteins whose levels reflect average glucose concentration over the half-life of the protein analyzed. Hemoglobin A1c measurements reflect blood glucose levels over that past 2-3 months, while fructosamine can be used to evaluate glycemic control over 10-14 days. In contrast, 1,5-AG levels in blood respond within 24 h as a result of glucose's competitive inhibition of 1,5-AG reabsorption in the kidney tubule. When glucose levels rise, even transiently, urinary loss of 1,5-AG occurs, and circulating levels fall. Because of changes in renal hemodynamics in normal pregnancies, 1,5-AG appears of limited usefulness in evaluation of gestational diabetes. However, the characteristics of 1,5-AG levels in patients with moderate to near-normal glycemic control suggest that it may be a valuable complement to frequent self-monitoring or continuous monitoring of plasma glucose to confirm stable glycemic control. Measurements performed daily or weekly in a given patient would suggest that overall glycemic control has been stable or improved if 1,5-AG levels are stable or increasing. If 1,5-AG levels fall, greater attention to glucose monitoring and both lifestyle and medical management could be prescribed to correct the glycemic excursions that would underlie such changes. The behavior of this analyte is different from all others used in the management of diabetes, creating potential opportunities for its use in clinical practice.