The MerR Family of Transcriptional Regulators

FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2003 Jun;27(2-3):145-63. doi: 10.1016/S0168-6445(03)00051-2.

Abstract

The MerR family is a group of transcriptional activators with similar N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA binding regions and C-terminal effector binding regions that are specific to the effector recognised. The signature of the family is amino acid similarity in the first 100 amino acids, including a helix-turn-helix motif followed by a coiled-coil region. With increasing recognition of members of this class over the last decade, particularly with the advent of rapid bacterial genome sequencing, MerR-like regulators have been found in a wide range of bacterial genera, but not yet in archaea or eukaryotes. The few MerR-like regulators that have been studied experimentally have been shown to activate suboptimal sigma(70)-dependent promoters, in which the spacing between the -35 and -10 elements recognised by the sigma factor is greater than the optimal 17+/-1 bp. Activation of transcription is through protein-dependent DNA distortion. The majority of regulators in the family respond to environmental stimuli, such as oxidative stress, heavy metals or antibiotics. A subgroup of the family activates transcription in response to metal ions. This subgroup shows sequence similarity in the C-terminal effector binding region as well as in the N-terminal region, but it is not yet clear how metal discrimination occurs. This subgroup of MerR family regulators includes MerR itself and may have evolved to generate a variety of specific metal-responsive regulators by fine-tuning the sites of metal recognition.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / chemistry
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism*
  • Evolution, Molecular
  • Genes, Bacterial / genetics
  • Metals / metabolism
  • Models, Genetic
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Transcription Factors / chemistry
  • Transcription Factors / classification
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*

Substances

  • Bacterial Proteins
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • MerR protein, Bacteria
  • Metals
  • Transcription Factors