Early detection of kidney disease in community settings: the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP)

Am J Kidney Dis. 2003 Jul;42(1):22-35. doi: 10.1016/s0272-6386(03)00405-0.


Background: Early identification of persons at risk for kidney disease provides an opportunity to prevent or delay its progression and decrease morbidity and mortality. Our hypothesis was that implementation of a targeted screening program in communities with high-risk populations would detect previously unidentified persons with or at high risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD) with a prevalence that exceeds that predicted for CKD in the general population.

Methods: Persons with hypertension or diabetes or a first-order relative with hypertension, diabetes, or kidney disease were screened for kidney disease risk factors. Blood pressure, blood glucose level, serum creatinine level, hemoglobin level, microalbuminuria, hematuria, pyuria, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (EGFR) were evaluated.

Results: Six thousand seventy-one eligible persons were screened from August 2000 through December 2001: of these persons, 68% were women, 43% were African American, 36% were white, 10% were Hispanic, and 5% were Native American. Most reported high-school education or more (84%) and health insurance coverage (86%). Twenty-seven percent met the screening definitions for diabetes; 64%, for hypertension; 29%, for microalbuminuria; 8%, for anemia; 18%, for hematuria; 13%, for pyuria; 5%, for elevated serum creatinine level; 16%, for reduced EGFR; and 44%, for obesity. Among participants without a reported history of specified conditions, screening identified 82 participants (2%) with diabetes, 1,014 participants (35%) with hypertension, 277 participants (5%) with elevated serum creatinine levels, 839 participants (14%) with reduced EGFRs, and 1,712 participants (29%) with microalbuminuria. Thirty-five percent of participants with a history of diabetes had elevated serum glucose levels at screening (> or =180 mg/dL [10 mmol/L]), and 64% with a history of hypertension did not have blood pressure controlled to less than 140/90 mm Hg. Only 18% of participants with a history of diabetes and 31% with a reduced EGFR had blood pressure controlled to less than 130/80 mm Hg and less than 135/85 mm Hg, respectively.

Conclusion: Targeted screening is effective in identifying persons with previously unidentified or poorly controlled kidney disease risk factors, as well as persons with a moderately decreased EGFR.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology
  • Chronic Disease
  • Community Medicine / organization & administration*
  • Creatinine / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Hematuria / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Kidney Diseases / diagnosis*
  • Kidney Diseases / epidemiology
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Male
  • Mass Screening / organization & administration*
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Pyuria / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Creatinine