Differential expression of the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA)-driven human cytochrome p450 (CYP) 1B1 gene was found in the livers of male mice, at high levels in neonates, but at low levels in adults. The goals of this study were to determine whether the differential expression of the tTA-driven human CYP1B1 (hCYP1B1) gene in neonates and adults was testosterone dependent and whether flutamide, a representative potent antiandrogen, led to the induction of hCYP1B1. This was tested by treating castrated transgenic mice with testosterone propionate and musk extracts. It was concluded that: (i). the levels of expression of both tTA and hCYP1B1 gradually declined, with clear changes being apparent between 2 and 4 weeks of age, (ii). castration of adult males resulted in the increased expressions of both tTA and hCYP1B1 to levels similar to those found in adult females, (iii). treatment of castrated male and adult female mice with testosterone propionate and musk extracts led to the restoration of the levels of expression of hCYP1B1 in the adult males, and (iv). treatment of adult males with flutamide caused an increase in the levels of expression of hCYP1B1 in the adult females, as indicated by the antiandrogenic activity. Thus, the differential expression of the tTA-driven hCYP1B1 gene in the transgenic mice was caused by androgen, and it is possible that castrated male and adult female mice expressing the tTA-controlled hCYP1B1 could be used as the basis for a strategy for the detection of androgens and antiandrogens.