State-dependent activity of neurons in the perifornical hypothalamic area during sleep and waking

Neuroscience. 2003;119(4):1209-19. doi: 10.1016/s0306-4522(03)00173-8.


Neurons containing orexins are located in the perifornical hypothalamic area and are considered to have a role in sleep-wake regulation. To examine how this area is involved in the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, we recorded neuronal activity in undrugged, head-restrained rats across sleep-waking cycles. Recordings were made in the perifornical hypothalamic area where orexin-immunoreactive neurons are distributed (PFH), and in the area dorsal to the PFH, including the zona incerta and subincertal nucleus (collectively referred to as ZI). The 40 neurons recorded from in the PFH were divided into five groups: (1) neurons most active during paradoxical sleep (PS, n=14, 35%), (2) neurons active during both waking (W) and PS (n=12, 30%), (3) neurons most active during W (n=7, 18%), (4) neurons most active during slow-wave sleep (SWS, n=3, 7.5%), and (5) neurons whose activity had no correlation with sleep-waking states (n=4, 10%). Of 30 neurons recorded from in the ZI, the corresponding numbers were 13 (43%), seven (23%), six (20%), three (10%), and one (3.3%). In both areas, neuronal activity fluctuated more during PS than during W. Waking-specific neurons (group 3) in the PFH generated action potentials with longer durations than those produced by other types of neurons. About half of the neurons in the PFH that were classified in groups 1, 2, and 3 increased their firing rate after the transition from one state to another, while higher percentages of neurons of groups 1 and 2 in the ZI than those in the PFH increased their firing rate prior to the state shift from SWS to PS. In these ZI neurons, however, the firing rate varied considerably at the state shift. These results suggest that the PFH and ZI are involved in the regulation of PS or W, especially the regulation of phasic events during PS or the maintenance of W. The ZI appears to be more closely involved than the PFH in the induction of PS or some phasic phenomena associated with PS.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Action Potentials / physiology*
  • Animals
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism*
  • Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus / cytology
  • Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus / metabolism*
  • Fornix, Brain / physiology
  • Hypothalamic Area, Lateral / cytology
  • Hypothalamic Area, Lateral / metabolism
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins*
  • Male
  • Neurons / metabolism*
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism*
  • Orexins
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Subthalamus / cytology
  • Subthalamus / metabolism
  • Wakefulness / physiology*


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Neuropeptides
  • Orexins