The peripheral nerve contains both nonmyelinating and myelinating Schwann cells. The interactions between axons, surrounding myelin, and Schwann cells are thought to be important for the correct functioning of the nervous system. To get insight into the genes involved in human myelination and maintenance of the myelin sheath and nerve, we performed a serial analysis of gene expression of human sciatic nerve and cultured Schwann cells. In the sciatic nerve library, we found high expression of genes encoding proteins related to lipid metabolism, the complement system, and the cell cycle, while cultured Schwann cells showed mainly high expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix proteins. The results of our study will assist in the identification of genes involved in maintenance of myelin and peripheral nerve and of genes involved in inherited peripheral neuropathies.