Endothelins are widely distributed in the body and perform several vascular and nonvascular functions. Experimental data indicate abnormalities of the endothelin system in several organs affected in chronic diabetic complications. In support of this notion, it has been shown that endothelin-receptor antagonists prevent structural and functional abnormalities in target organs of diabetic complications in animal models. Alterations of plasma endothelin levels have also been demonstrated in human diabetes. This review discusses the role of endothelins in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. The current experimental evidence suggests that endothelin-receptor antagonism may potentially be an adjuvant therapeutic tool in the treatment of chronic diabetic complications.