Assessing the redundancy of MADS-box genes during carpel and ovule development

Nature. 2003 Jul 3;424(6944):85-8. doi: 10.1038/nature01741.


Carpels are essential for sexual plant reproduction because they house the ovules and subsequently develop into fruits that protect, nourish and ultimately disperse the seeds. The AGAMOUS (AG) gene is necessary for plant sexual reproduction because stamens and carpels are absent from ag mutant flowers. However, the fact that sepals are converted into carpelloid organs in certain mutant backgrounds even in the absence of AG activity indicates that an AG-independent carpel-development pathway exists. AG is a member of a monophyletic clade of MADS-box genes that includes SHATTERPROOF1 (SHP1), SHP2 and SEEDSTICK (STK), indicating that these four genes might share partly redundant activities. Here we show that the SHP genes are responsible for AG-independent carpel development. We also show that the STK gene is required for normal development of the funiculus, an umbilical-cord-like structure that connects the developing seed to the fruit, and for dispersal of the seeds when the fruit matures. We further show that all four members of the AG clade are required for specifying the identity of ovules, the landmark invention during the course of vascular plant evolution that enabled seed plants to become the most successful group of land plants.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis / chemistry
  • AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis / genetics
  • AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Alleles
  • Arabidopsis / anatomy & histology
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / chemistry
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism
  • Fruit / genetics
  • Fruit / growth & development
  • Genes, Plant / genetics*
  • MADS Domain Proteins / chemistry
  • MADS Domain Proteins / genetics*
  • MADS Domain Proteins / metabolism*
  • Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
  • Morphogenesis
  • Plant Structures / genetics*
  • Plant Structures / growth & development*
  • Seeds / genetics
  • Seeds / growth & development


  • AGAMOUS Protein, Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • MADS Domain Proteins
  • SEEDSTICK protein, Arabidopsis
  • SHP1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • SHP2 protein, Arabidopsis