A length polymorphism in the circadian clock gene Per3 is linked to delayed sleep phase syndrome and extreme diurnal preference

Sleep. 2003 Jun 15;26(4):413-5. doi: 10.1093/sleep/26.4.413.


Study objectives: To investigate the link between extreme diurnal preference, delayed sleep phase syndrome, and a length polymorphism in Per3.

Design: Subjects were genotyped using polymerase chain reaction.

Patients or participants: Subjects with defined diurnal preference as determined by the Horne-Ostberg questionnaire and patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome.

Measurements and results: The Per3 polymorphism correlated significantly with extreme diurnal preference, the longer allele associating with morningness and the shorter allele with eveningness. The shorter allele was strongly associated with the delayed sleep phase syndrome patients, 75% of whom were homozygous.

Conclusion: The length of the Per3 repeat region identifies a potential genetic marker for extreme diurnal preference.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Choice Behavior*
  • Circadian Rhythm / genetics*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency
  • Genotype
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics*
  • Period Circadian Proteins
  • Polymorphism, Genetic / genetics*
  • Sleep Disorders, Circadian Rhythm / genetics*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Transcription Factors


  • Nuclear Proteins
  • PER3 protein, human
  • Period Circadian Proteins
  • Transcription Factors