The marmoset is becoming an important model for studies of primate vision, due to factors such as its small body size, lissencephalic brain, short gestational period and rapid postnatal development. For many studies of visual physiology (including single-cell recordings), it is a requirement that the animal is maintained under anaesthesia and neuromuscular block in order to ensure ocular stability. However, maintaining such a small animal (290-400 g) in good physiological condition for long periods requires expert attention. This becomes particularly important in the case of recordings from visual association cortex, where neuronal responses are known to be highly sensitive to factors such as the type and dose of anaesthetic, and the animal's physiological balance. The present protocol summarises our laboratory's experience over the last decade in developing a preparation for the study of marmoset visual cortex. It allows excellent recording from extrastriate areas for periods of at least 48 h, including the continuous study of isolated single cells for several hours.