Hematopoiesis in mammals undergoes a developmental shift in location from fetal liver to bone marrow accompanied by a gradual transition from highly proliferative to deeply quiescent stem cell populations. P2Y receptors are G-protein-coupled nucleotide receptors participating in vascular and immune responses to injury. We identified a P2Y-like receptor for UDP-conjugated sugars, GPR105 (P2Y14), with restricted expression on primitive cells in the hematopoietic lineage. Anti-GPR105 antibody selectively isolated a subset of hematopoietic cells within the fetal bone marrow, but not in the fetal liver, that was enriched for G0 cell cycle status and for in vitro stem-cell-like multipotential long-term culture capability. Conditioned media from bone marrow stroma induced receptor activation and chemotaxis that was sensitive to G alpha i and anti-receptor antibody inhibition. GPR105 is a G-protein-coupled receptor identifying a quiescent, primitive population of hematopoietic cells restricted to bone marrow. It mediates primitive cell responses to specific hematopoietic microenvironments and extends the known immune system functions of P2Y receptors to the stem cell level. These data suggest a new class of receptors participating in the regulation of the stem cell compartment.