Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is a neuropeptide that has been suggested to play a role in the development of some malignancies. Our aim was: (1) to identify the expression of GRP in cancerous prostate glands, and (2) to correlate its expression to various pathological parameters and to the patient's clinical outcome. Using standard immunohistochemistry, we evaluated GRP expression in both biopsy and radical prostatectomy specimens from 30 patients with prostatic adenocarcinomas. GRP was expressed in 18 radical prostatectomy specimens (60%) and in 15 biopsies (50%). There was an association between positive immunoexpression of GRP, relapse ( P=0.029) and advanced tumor stages (i.e. pT3, pT4) ( P=0.049). In the respective biopsies, GRP immunostatus was similar to that observed in the subsequent radical prostatectomy specimens. GRP immunoexpression may be of some value as a diagnostic and prognostic marker. Patients whose pathology specimens demonstrate GRP immunopositivity should be closely monitored, since they appear to be at higher risk of disease progression and relapse.