The authors report their experience in the treatment of common peroneal nerve (CPN) injuries using a one-stage procedure of nerve repair and tibialis posterior tendon transfer. A series of 45 patients with traumatic injury and graft repair of the CPN is presented. From 1988 to 1991, the six patients elected for surgery had only nerve repair: five ultimately did not recover, while muscle contraction in the remaining patient was graded M1-2. Since 1991, nerve surgery in our clinic was associated with tendon transfer procedures (39 cases) which were followed by a satisfactory reinnervation rate. Nerve transection and iatrogenic injuries, torsion/dislocation of the knee, complex biosseous fractures of the leg, and gunshot wounds showed excellent to fair results in decreasing order: in nerve sections, muscle recovery scored M3 or M4+ in all the patients, and in nerve ruptures due to severe dislocation of the knee, it was M3 or M4+ in 85% of cases. The association of microsurgical nerve repair and tendon transfer has changed the course of CPN injuries.