A comprehensive review of recent neuropsychological studies of mild head injury (MHI) involving children and adolescents is presented. The seminal work of Rutter and his colleagues is reviewed. An alternative conceptualization of MHI as proposed by various researchers is elaborated and further research investigating the cognitive sequelae of MHI is reviewed. MHI is discussed within the context of development and information processing models. Finally, the sequelae of MHI are reviewed with respect to academic functioning. Methodological problems inherent in studies of MHI are identified and discussed. The studies reviewed here support the conclusion that both the cognitive and emotional consequences of MHI should receive serious evaluation.