A stratified epidemiological survey was carried out among the best French rugby players to assess the prevalence of trauma to the lower or middle part of the face (TLMPF) and the frequency at which the mouthguards (MGs) were worn. The 1140 randomized players (elite 1, elite 2 and national 1 clubs) filled in the same form anonymously. The variables were first subjected to univariate analysis (Chi-square, anova). Secondly, they were included in a multivariate model (logistic regression). Some 29.57% of players had already been affected by a TLMPF. The risk increased for the oldest forward players. It also increased with the number of yearly competitions and number of hours of weekly training. Some 64.3% of players used a MG. The frequency at which it was worn increased with the number of yearly competitions, for those who had experinced a previous trauma and for the pack players who had been playing for a long time.