Eighteen cases of alloimmune neonatal neutropenia (ANN) were analysed for their clinical and serological properties. Pregnancy was normal in all cases, but a 50% incidence of abortion is recorded. With the exception of two premature babies, all newborns were delivered at term. Omphalitis and mild infections of the skin were predominantly present. None of the new-borns died by overwhelming sepsis. The average duration of neutropenia was 11 weeks (range 3-28 weeks). Intravenous IgG therapy was followed by transient remission in 2 of 4 affected newborns. Antibody differentiation revealed in five sera NA1-, in four sera NA2- and in two sera NB1-specific antibodies. In two sera only HLA antibodies were detectable. Complement activating antibodies were determined in 72% of the sera. Screening for granulocyte-specific antibodies in 1016 postpartum sera of unselected women revealed a total of 11 sera (1.1%) reacting selectively with granulocytes, but only four (0.4%) were directed against a known granulocyte-specific antigen. None of the new-born of mothers alloimmunized to granulocyte antigens developed neutropenia, which suggests an incidence of ANN below 0.1%.