Prevalence of diabetes, impaired fasting glucose and insulin resistance syndrome in an urban Indian population

Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2003 Jul;61(1):69-76. doi: 10.1016/s0168-8227(03)00085-8.


Objective: Epidemiological study among urban subjects in western India to determine prevalence of diabetes, insulin resistance syndrome (IRS) and their risk factors.

Methods: Randomly selected adults > or =20 years were studied using stratified sampling. Target sample was 1,800 (men 960, women 840). 1123 subjects (response 62.4%) were evaluated and blood samples were available in 532 men and 559 women (n=1091, 60.6%). Measurement of anthropometric variables, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids was performed. Atherosclerosis risk factors were determined using current guidelines. Diabetes was diagnosed when the subject was a known diabetic or fasting blood glucose was > or =126 mg/dl, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) diagnosed when fasting glucose was 110-125 mg/dl. IRS was diagnosed when any three of-IFG, high triglycerides >150 mg/dl, low HDL cholesterol (men<40 mg/dl, women<50 mg/dl), central obesity (men>102 cm, women>88 cm), or high normal blood pressure (>130/>85 mmHg) or hypertension-were present.

Results: Diabetes was present in 70 men (13.2%) and 64 women (11.5%). Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes was 9.3% in men (95% confidence intervals (CI) 6.7-11.8), 8.1% in women (CI 5.8-10.4) and 8.6% overall (CI 6.9-10.3). IFG was in 28 men (5.3%) and 29 women (5.2%). IRS was present in 52 men (9.8%) and 114 women (20.4%) with age-adjusted prevalence of 7.9% in men (CI 6.7-9.1) and 17.5% in women (CI 14.4-20.6) with an overall prevalence of 12.8% (CI 10.8-14.8). Other metabolic abnormalities of IRS in men and women were high triglycerides in 32.1 and 28.6%, low HDL cholesterol in 54.9 and 90.2%; central obesity in 21.8 and 44.0%, and high normal blood pressure or hypertension in 35.5 and 32.4%. IFG subjects had similar atherosclerosis risk factor profile as normal subjects while those with IRS and diabetes had significantly greater prevalence of obesity, central obesity, hypertension, high triglycerides and low HDL (P<0.01).

Conclusions: There is s significant prevalence of diabetes and IRS in this urban Indian population. Subjects with diabetes as well as IRS have greater prevalence of obesity, central obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL as compared with normal subjects.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Arteriosclerosis / epidemiology
  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Pressure
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology*
  • Female
  • Glucose Intolerance / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Middle Aged
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data*


  • Blood Glucose