Neighbourhood objective socio-economic indicators and community-reported subjective measures of social capital were examined in relation to children's health-related quality of life in the Netherlands. Three different data-sources were used: (1) objective neighbourhood socio-economic indicators, (2) subjective neighbourhood data on social capital, and (3) individual data of a family cohort study, including questions on children's health-related quality of life, and family socio-economic status. Multilevel analyses were conducted using both neighbourhood level and individual level data. Neighbourhood socio-economic status and social capital were associated. Measures of socio-economic deprivation and social capital were both non-specifically associated with children's general health and satisfaction, independent of possible individual-level confounders. However, children's mental health and behaviour were specifically associated with one aspect of social capital, the degree of informal social control in the neighbourhood.