In two studies, pneumococcal polysaccharide (Pnc PS) vaccine was given to more than 400 pregnant Papua New Guinean women. No deleterious effects were found. The vaccine prevented acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) among offspring in utero or aged 1-17 months at the time of maternal immunisation, suggesting protection through breast feeding. Serum IgG antibody titres were higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated groups for 2-4 months after delivery and no immune suppression, evaluated by the response to subsequent Pnc PS vaccination, was detected. Breast milk IgA to four serotypes was 1.1-1.8 times higher in immunised than unimmunised women for 6 months postpartum. Given results from several developing countries, large-scale safety and efficacy trials are now justified. Postpartum maternal immunisation is another intervention under consideration.