A survey of invasive H. influenzae infections has been underway in six regions of England and Wales since September 1990. In the first year, there were 433 cases of which 362 (84%) were due to H. influenzae type b (Hib). The majority of Hib infections were in children aged less than 5 years; there being an annual incidence of 26.4/100,000 in this age group. Meningitis occurred in 56% of cases of Hib infection. The results confirm previous evidence of the need to incorporate Hib vaccination into the childhood immunisation schedule. The ongoing survey data will provide useful information to assess the impact of an Hib immunisation programme.