We have previously described the expression of interleukin cytokines (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) in human breast cancer (HBC) tissue. Based on our previous studies, we hypothesize that the IL-1 family of cytokines, antagonists (IL-1ra) and receptors (IL-1RI and IL-1RII) are present within the human breast cancer (HBC) tumor microenvironment and that the IL-1 network of cytokines and receptors within the tumor microenvironment can control tumor cell subpopulation expression of other protumorigenic cytokines such as the angiogenic/growth factor, interleukin-8 (IL-8). To test this hypothesis we characterized the in vivo expression of the IL-1 network in HBC tissues and homogenates by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and ELISA. Additionally, we examined IL-1R expression in HBC cell lines in vitro and in a murine xenograft model by IHC. Finally, we determined the ability of IL-1 to induce IL-8 expression in in vitro using HBC cell lines. We observed that not only are the IL-1 cytokines present in HBC tissue and homogenates, but that IL-1Rs and IL-8 are also present in the HBC tumor microenvironment. Additionally, expression levels for some members of the IL-1/IL-8 network of cytokines correlated with the prognostic indicators, ER/PR. Using HBC cell lines, we observed that HBC cell lines express IL-1Rs in vitro and in the xenograft model. Furthermore, in vitro, HBC cell lines show a spectrum of responsiveness to IL-1 as measured by expression the proangiogenic/mitogenic cytokine IL-8. Our data clearly demonstrate the presence and distribution of IL-1 cytokines and receptors in HBC and suggests that the local expression of IL-1 results in the activation of a population of cells within the HBC tumor microenvironment. This activation of the IL-1/IL-1R cytokine family via autocrine and/or paracrine mechanisms leads to a cascade of secondary protumorigenic cytokines. These secondary signals induce the expression of numerous protumorigenic activities such as the expression of IL-8, and subsequently contribute to angiogenesis, tumor proliferation, and tumor invasion.