Recurrent athletic head injury: risks and when to retire

Clin Sports Med. 2003 Jul;22(3):593-603, x. doi: 10.1016/s0278-5919(02)00095-9.


This article focuses on the issues related to recurrent athletic head injuries; specifically, when cumulative exponential injury or the second impact syndrome may be anticipated. Case histories and research studies are used to illustrate the salient points. A signs-and-symptoms checklist for use in concussion evaluation and management is included. Finally, the topic of when to retire after repeated athletic head injuries is discussed and illustrated with a case study.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Athletic Injuries / prevention & control*
  • Brain Concussion / classification
  • Brain Concussion / prevention & control*
  • Disability Evaluation
  • Football / injuries
  • Hockey / injuries
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Retirement*
  • Risk Assessment / methods
  • Risk Factors
  • Secondary Prevention
  • Sports Medicine / methods
  • Syndrome