Background: The long-term effects of the selective estrogen-receptor modulator raloxifene hydrochloride on glycemic control and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus are unknown.
Objective: The aim of this analysis was to compare the effects of 3-year treatment with raloxifene 60 mg/d versus placebo on glycemic control and markers of cardiovascular disease risk in osteoporotic postmenopausal women with and without type 2 diabetes.
Methods: In this analysis, we included women from the Multiple Outcomes of Raloxifene Evaluation trial (a multicenter, double-masked trial) who were randomized to receive raloxifene 60 mg/d (n = 2557) or placebo (n = 2576). Baseline and 36-month fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and total cholesterol (TC) were measured for all participants. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, apo B, and fibrinogen were assessed in approximately 1800 participants from selected larger sites.
Results: At baseline, 202 of all 5133 women (3.9%) had type 2 diabetes. Of the approximately 1800 women who were assessed for HbA1c, LDL-C, TGs, apo A-I, apo B, and fibrinogen, 70 (3.9%) had type 2 diabetes at baseline. Compared with placebo, raloxifene did not significantly affect HbA1c, FPG, HDL-C, or TGs in women with or without diabetes. Raloxifene produced statistically significant reductions in TC, LDL-C, and fibrinogen both in women with diabetes (all P < or = 0.004) and without diabetes (all P < 0.001). Raloxifene significantly increased apo A-I (P < 0.001) and reduced apo B (P < 0.001) in women without diabetes. In the raloxifene-treated group, body weight increased by a mean 0.31 kg (P < 0.001) in women without diabetes.
Conclusions: In osteoporotic postmenopausal women with or without type 2 diabetes, raloxifene 60 mg/d did not affect glycemic control and had favorable effects on TC, LDL-C, and fibrinogen levels.