MMN in the visual modality: a review

Biol Psychol. 2003 Jul;63(3):199-236. doi: 10.1016/s0301-0511(03)00049-8.


The mismatch negativity (MMN) component is an event-related potential (ERP) that can be elicited by any change in the acoustic environment, and it is related to memory-based, automatic processing mechanisms, and attentional capture processes. This component is well defined in the auditory modality. However, there is still a great controversy about its existence in the visual modality. This paper reviews the studies that are relevant with regard to memory-based, automatic deviance detection ERPs in the visual system. The paper discusses the main strengths and limitations of those studies and suggests what directions should be taken for future research.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Attention / physiology
  • Auditory Perception / physiology
  • Evoked Potentials, Visual / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Memory / physiology
  • Mental Processes / physiology*
  • Visual Perception / physiology*