Their adhesion to the intestinal mucosa is considered one of the main reasons for the beneficial health effects of specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB). However, the influence of disease on the mucosal adhesion is largely unknown. Adhesion of selected LAB to resected colonic tissue and mucus was determined in patients with three major intestinal diseases (i.e., diverticulitis, rectal carcinoma, and inflammatory bowel disease) and compared to healthy control tissue. All strains were observed to adhere better to immobilized mucus than to whole intestinal tissue. Two strains (Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG and L. reuteri) were found to exhibit disease-specific adhesion to intestinal tissue. All tested strains, with the exception of L. rhamnosus strain GG, displayed disease-specific adhesion to intestinal mucus. These results suggest that strains with optimal binding characteristics for a particular intestinal disease can be selected.