Cigarette smoking and cervical cancer: Part I: a meta-analysis

Biomed Pharmacother. 2003 Mar;57(2):67-77. doi: 10.1016/s0753-3322(03)00196-3.


Cancer of the cervix is the third most common cancer among women worldwide and its etiology is not clearly understood. Human papillomavirus can be found in approximately 95% of cervical cancers, but it does not appear to be necessary or sufficient to induce malignancy. In 1977, Winkelstein suggested that cigarette smoking was a causative factor in the development of cervical cancer. We report a meta-analysis of cigarette smoking and cervical disease and conclude that the data support a role for cigarette smoking as a risk factor for cervical cancer. We propose a multifactorial hypothesis involving a virus-tar interaction as the etiology of cervical cancer.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Humans
  • Papillomaviridae
  • Papillomavirus Infections / complications
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Tars / adverse effects
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


  • Tars
  • tobacco tar