Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003 Jul;16(3):497-516. doi: 10.1128/CMR.16.3.497-516.2003.


Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by microfungi that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Because of their pharmacological activity, some mycotoxins or mycotoxin derivatives have found use as antibiotics, growth promotants, and other kinds of drugs; still others have been implicated as chemical warfare agents. This review focuses on the most important ones associated with human and veterinary diseases, including aflatoxin, citrinin, ergot akaloids, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, trichothecenes, and zearalenone.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aflatoxins / toxicity
  • Air Pollution, Indoor
  • Animals
  • Bioterrorism
  • Citrinin / toxicity
  • Ergot Alkaloids / toxicity
  • Food Microbiology
  • Fumonisins / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Mycotoxins / toxicity*
  • Trichothecenes / toxicity
  • Zearalenone / toxicity


  • Aflatoxins
  • Ergot Alkaloids
  • Fumonisins
  • Mycotoxins
  • Trichothecenes
  • Citrinin
  • Zearalenone