Membrane lipid peroxidation processes yield products that may react with DNA and proteins to cause oxidative modifications. Cytosolic NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) in U937 cells produces NADPH, an essential reducing equivalent for the antioxidant system. The protective role of ICDH against lipid peroxidation-mediated oxidative damage in U937 cells was investigated in control cells pre-treated with oxalomalate, a competitive inhibitor of ICDH. Upon exposure to 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH) to U937 cells, which induces lipid peroxidation in membranes, the viability was lower and the protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and oxidative DNA damage, reflected by an increase in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, were higher in oxalomalate-treated cells as compared to control cells. We also observed the significant increase in the endogenous production of reactive oxygen species, as measured by the oxidation of 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin, as well as the significant decrease in the intracellular GSH level in oxalomalate-treated U937 cells upon exposure to AAPH. These results suggest that ICDH plays an important role as an antioxidant enzyme in cellular defense against lipid peroxidation-mediated oxidative damage through the removal of reactive oxygen species.