To identify the peroxisome proliferator-inducible acylcarnitine hydrolase in C57BL/6 mice, acylcarnitine hydrolase was purified to homogeneity using column chromatography. The purified enzyme, named ACH M1, had a subunit molecular weight of 60kDa. ACH M1 could hydrolyze classical carboxylesterase (CES) substrates as well as palmitoyl-dl-carnitine and these activities were inhibited by anti-rat CES antibodies. The peptide fragments of ACH M1 were identical to those of the deduced amino acid sequence of mouse CES2 isozyme. These findings suggested that ACH M1 was a member of the CES2 family. The mouse CES2 cDNA, designated mCES2, was cloned from mouse liver. The recombinant mCES2 expressing in Sf9 cells showed high level of catalytic activity toward acylcarnitines. Furthermore, the biological characteristics of the expressed protein were identical with those of ACH M1 in many cases, suggesting that mCES2 encodes mouse liver ACH M1.