A cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) vaccine (CETi-1) that induces auto-antibodies that specifically bind and inhibit activity of endogenous CETP has been demonstrated in rabbits to significantly increase HDL-C and reduce the development of atherosclerosis. In a Phase I human trial with CETi-1, one patient at the highest dose (250 mg) out of a total of 36 patients who received a single injection developed anti-CETP antibodies. In an extension study of 23 patients, 53% (8/15) who received a second injection of the active vaccine developed anti-CETP antibodies compared with 0% (0/8) in the placebo group. The vaccine was well tolerated and no significant laboratory abnormalities occurred. CETi-1 is a feasible therapy in humans to induce CETP auto-antibodies. Future research will determine if repeat inoculations will induce a sufficient anti-CETP antibody response to inhibit CETP and increase HDL levels.