Purpose of review: To assess the recent advances in the field of waterborne nosocomial infections.
Recent findings: In the last year, many publications have confirmed the importance of well known nosocomial waterborne pathogens such as Legionella spp. or other Gram-negative bacteria, especially non-fermentative bacilli. There have also been numerous reports of outbreaks or pseudo-outbreaks caused by Mycobacteria spp. The most intriguing information relates to the possibility that some fungi causing nosocomial infections may originate from the hospital water distribution system.
Summary: Despite progress in understanding the pathogenesis of nosocomial waterborne infections, outbreaks, pseudo-outbreaks and sporadic infections still occur. Targeted quality control of hospital water, updated procedures for the appropriate use of sterile and non-sterile water, coupled with surveillance constitute the cornerstones of prevention of these infections.