Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has an extremely poor prognosis. To improve diagnosis and treatment, key mechanisms of deregulated molecular functions have to be identified. Using microarray analysis, the expression patterns of 5600 human genes were assessed in PDAC by comparison with the normal pancreas and chronic pancreatitis (CP). The expression of 467 of 5600 genes was increased in PDAC in comparison to the normal pancreas, and the expression of 120 of these genes was not increased in CP. In addition, 341 of 5600 genes were expressed at decreased levels in PDAC tissues, of which 96 were decreased in comparison to both normal and CP tissues. Thus, a total of 808 of 5600 human genes were differentially expressed in pancreatic cancer. The identification of a large panel of altered genes in PDAC will stimulate additional studies that will lead to improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying pancreatic malignant growth.