Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is a major enzyme for triglyceride (TG) lipolysis in adipose tissue. In HSL-knockout mice, plasma free fatty acid and TG levels are low, associated with low liver TG content. Because a decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity has been reported to be associated with high liver TG levels, our aim was to determine whether a hepatic TG content lower than normal, as observed in HSL-knockout mice, leads to increased hepatic insulin sensitivity. Therefore, hyperinsulinemic clamp experiments in combination with D-(3)H-glucose were used. Furthermore, hepatic insulin receptor and phosphorylated protein kinase B (PKB-P)/akt were analyzed by Western blotting. No significant differences where observed in insulin-mediated whole-body glucose uptake between HSL-knockout and control mice. Interestingly, hepatic insulin sensitivity of HSL-knockout mice was increased, because insulin caused a greater reduction in endogenous glucose production ( approximately 71% compared with approximately 31% in control mice; P < 0.05), despite decreased plasma adiponectin levels. PKB/akt phosphorylation and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity was significantly higher in livers of HSL-knockout mice after insulin stimulation. In HSL-knockout mice, reduced hepatic TG stores result in an increased suppressive effect of insulin on hepatic glucose production, in line with an increased hepatic PKB-P/akt and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase activity. Thus, hepatic insulin sensitivity is indeed increased after reducing hepatic TG stores below normal.