Temperature measurement during polymerization of polymethylmethacrylate cement used for vertebroplasty

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2003 Jul 15;28(14):1555-9.


Study design: Ex vivo biomechanical study using osteoporotic cadaveric vertebral bodies.

Objective: To measure internal vertebral body temperature during polymerization of cements used for vertebroplasty.

Summary of background data: Previous ex vivo studies have shown that temperature increases during cement polymerization were unlikely to cause thermal necrosis.

Methods: Twenty-four osteoporotic vertebral bodies were instrumented with thermocouples and injected with one of two cement volumes (6 or 10 mL) of one of two cements (Simplex P or modified Simplex P, Stryker-Howmedica-Osteonics, Kalamazoo, MI). Vertebral bodies were placed in a bath (37 C) and temperatures were measured for 15 minutes from the time the cement was initially mixed.

Results: In the vertebral bodies, peak temperatures at the anterior cortex ranged from 44 C to 113 C, those in the center ranged from 49 C to 112 C, and those at the spinal canal ranged from 39 C to 57 C. Dwell times at temperatures above 50 C at the anterior cortex ranged from 0 to 5.5 minutes, those in the center ranged from 0 to 8 minutes, and those at the spinal canal ranged from 0 to 2.5 minutes.

Conclusion: Internal temperature elevation measured during cement polymerization was substantially higher than previously reported and may be sufficiently high to pose a risk of thermal necrosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Body Temperature / drug effects*
  • Bone Cements / chemistry
  • Bone Cements / pharmacology*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Osteoporosis / physiopathology*
  • Polymers / chemistry
  • Polymethyl Methacrylate / chemistry
  • Polymethyl Methacrylate / pharmacology*
  • Spine / drug effects*
  • Spine / physiopathology
  • Spine / surgery
  • Time Factors


  • Bone Cements
  • Polymers
  • Polymethyl Methacrylate