This publication establishes a reference human liver protein map obtained with immobilized pH gradients. By microsequencing, 57 spots or 42 polypeptide chains were identified. By protein map comparison and matching (liver, red blood cell and plasma sample maps), 8 additional proteins were identified. The new polypeptides and previously known proteins are listed in a table and/or labeled on the protein map, thus providing a human liver two-dimensional gel database. This reference map can be used to identify protein spots on other samples such as rectal cancer biopsies.