This study investigated whether osseointegration can occur on a surface which had previously been coated with dental plaque. The mandibular premolar regions of four young adult Labrador dogs were used for the study. The lower premolars (P1, P2, P3, and P4) were extracted on either side of the mandibles. Following a 12-week healing period, three 3.75 mm x 13 mm commercially pure titanium implants (Nobel BiocareAB, Gothenburg, Sweden) were partially inserted in one side of each mandible. This resulted in some threads protruding from the tissues into the oral cavity. Plaque was allowed to accumulate on the exposed implant surfaces. Following a 5-week healing period, the contaminated parts of each implant were treated using three different cleaning techniques: (1) swabbing with supersaturated citric acid for 30 s on a cotton pellet followed by rinsing with physiological saline, (2) cleansing with a toothbrush and physiological saline only for 1 min, and (3) swabbing with 10% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on a cotton pellet for 1 min followed by rinsing with physiological saline. The treated implants and one previously unused implant (control) were then placed into freshly prepared tapped sites to the full implant length on the contralateral sides of the mandibles. Following 11 weeks of healing, biopsies were obtained and ground sections prepared for histomorphometric analysis. All treatment modalities were associated with direct bone to implant contact on the portion of implant surface previously exposed to the oral environment. In conclusion, The results demonstrate that osseointegration can occur to surfaces that were plaque contaminated and cleaned by different methods.