The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of autogenous bone graft particles and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane in the treatment of peri-implantitis. The treatment outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic methods including quantitative digital subtraction radiography. A total of 64 implants with a titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) surface was inserted in eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). After a 3-month healing period with plaque control, experimental peri-implantitis characterized by a bone loss of 4-6 mm was established during 14-22 months. Plaque control was then re-implemented and surgical treatment involving autogenous bone+membrane (B+M), autogenous bone (B), membrane (M), or a conventional flap procedure alone (control) (C) was performed. The animals were killed 6 months after treatment. Healthy peri-implant tissue was established irrespective of the applied surgical procedure. A mean bone gain of 4.7 mm was identified around implants treated with B+M, while, respectively, 4.0, 3.0, and 1.9 mm were recorded within the B, M, and C groups. Quantitative digital subtraction radiography confirmed considerable bone gain within defects treated with autogenous bone with or without membrane coverage. The bone gain, especially for defects treated with B+M, seemed to be almost to the level before development of peri-implantitis. By contrast, 38 and 25% of the defect was on average characterized by bone gain when, respectively, M or C was used alone. The present study of implants with a TPS surface in cynomolgus monkeys thus demonstrates considerable bone regeneration after treatment of experimental peri-implantitis with autogenous bone graft particles with or without ePTFE membrane coverage. Further stereologic and histologic evaluation of the treatment outcome is necessary before final conclusions about the effect of autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane can be made.