Implant surface preparation in the surgical treatment of experimental peri-implantitis with autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane in cynomolgus monkeys

Clin Oral Implants Res. 2003 Aug;14(4):412-22. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-0501.2003.00912.x.


The aim of the present investigation was to assess the effect of four implant surface preparation methods used in the surgical treatment of experimental peri-implantitis with autogenous bone graft and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) membrane. The methods were air-powder abrasive unit+citric acid, air-powder abrasive unit, gauze soaked in saline+citric acid, and gauze soaked alternately in chlorhexidine and saline. A total of 64 implants with a titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS) surface was placed in eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis). After a 3-month period with plaque control, experimental peri-implantitis was induced. A bone loss of 4-6 mm was established after 9-17 months and plaque control was re-implemented. The peri-implantitis defects were surgically exposed, granulation tissue was removed, and each implant surface was prepared by one of the above-mentioned procedures. The defects were then filled with autogenous bone graft particles and covered by an ePTFE membrane. The animals were sacrificed after 6 months. Evaluation by clinical parameters, radiography including quantitative digital subtraction radiography, histology, and stereology did not reveal significant differences between the methods. Almost total bone regeneration and considerable re-osseointegration were obtained irrespective of the method applied. A mean bone-to-implant contact of 39-46% was observed within the defects. Therefore, the present study of implants with a TPS surface in cynomolgus monkeys indicates that the simplest method involving gauze soaked alternately in chlorhexidine and saline should be the preferred implant surface preparation method in the surgical treatment of peri-implantitis involving autogenous bone graft and ePTFE membrane.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alveolar Bone Loss / diagnostic imaging
  • Alveolar Bone Loss / surgery
  • Animals
  • Bone Regeneration / physiology
  • Bone Transplantation*
  • Chlorhexidine / therapeutic use
  • Citric Acid / therapeutic use
  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible / chemistry
  • Dental Implants*
  • Dental Prosthesis Design*
  • Disinfectants / therapeutic use
  • Macaca fascicularis
  • Male
  • Membranes, Artificial*
  • Osseointegration / physiology
  • Periodontitis / diagnostic imaging
  • Periodontitis / surgery*
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene*
  • Radiography
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Subtraction Technique
  • Surface Properties
  • Titanium / chemistry
  • Transplantation, Autologous


  • Coated Materials, Biocompatible
  • Dental Implants
  • Disinfectants
  • Membranes, Artificial
  • Citric Acid
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene
  • Titanium
  • Chlorhexidine