Several studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa have pointed to an increased risk of recurrent TB in patients who are HIV-seropositive. Routine case notification data from the Malawi Tuberculosis Programme, which has improved its registration practices in the last two years, shows that recurrent TB (smear-positive and smear-negative TB) constitutes 9% of total notifications. The objectives of reducing rates of recurrent TB are 1) to complement other interventions to decrease TB incidence rates and transmission of disease, 2) to reduce TB-specific morbidity and mortality and 3) to restore confidence amongst health care staff and patients about the effectiveness of the current TB control strategy. Four possible options for reducing recurrent TB are discussed, and for each option this includes the evidence for effectiveness, current practice and operational considerations. The options are 1) using rifampicin and isoniazid (RH) in the continuation phase of treatment, 2) extending the duration of the continuation phase, 3) providing post-treatment isoniazid prophylaxis to HIV-positive patients who have completed treatment and 4) treating HIV-positive TB patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The last three options all require that TB patients know their HIV serostatus. The authors suggest that this issue of recurrent TB should be considered as one of the important areas for debate and action when considering the dual TB/HIV epidemic.