Application of fluid modeling to determine threshold leak size for liquid foods

J Food Prot. 2003 Jul;66(7):1260-8. doi: 10.4315/0362-028x-66.7.1260.


In this study, the mechanism by which a package defect converts to a leaker was examined in an effort to develop a relationship between threshold leak size and loss of package sterility. The threshold leak size is the hole size at which the onset of leakage occurs. The threshold pressure is the pressure required to initiate a leak. Leak initiation was studied in terms of the interaction between three components: liquid attributes of liquid food products, defect size, and pressures required to initiate liquid flow. Liquid surface tension, viscosity, and density values were obtained for 16 liquids. The imposed pressures required to initiate flow through microtubes with interior diameters of 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 20, and 50 microm were measured with the use of 63 test cells filled with safranin red dye, tryptic soy broth, and distilled water with surface tensions of 18.69, 44.09, and 64.67 mN/m, respectively. Significant differences (P<0.05) between threshold pressures observed for safranin red dye, tryptic soy broth, and distilled water were found. Liquids with low surface tensions, such as safranin red dye, required significantly lower threshold imposed pressures than did liquids with high surface tensions, such as distilled water (P<0.05). An equation to quantify the relationship between liquid surface tension, threshold imposed pressure, and defect size was developed. Threshold pressures observed were not significantly different (P>0.05) from those predicted by the equation. Imposed pressures and vacuums generated within packages during random vibration and sweep resonance tests were measured for brick-style aseptic packages (250 ml), metal cans (76.2 by 114.3 mm [425 ml]), 1-qt gable-top packages (946 ml), 0.5-gal gable-top packages (1.89 liters), and 1-gal milk jugs (4.25 liters). Significant differences between packages were found with respect to observed generated pressures during vibration testing (P<0.05). An equation to calculate threshold size on the basis of liquid surface tension and imposed pressure was established.

MeSH terms

  • Chemical Phenomena
  • Chemistry, Physical
  • Food Industry / standards
  • Food Packaging / methods*
  • Food Packaging / standards*
  • Models, Chemical
  • Particle Size
  • Pressure
  • Surface Tension
  • Vacuum
  • Vibration
  • Viscosity