Explicit and implicit processes in multicue judgment

Mem Cognit. 2003 Jun;31(4):608-18. doi: 10.3758/bf03196101.


In two experiments, a multicue probability learning task was used to train participants in relating judgments to a criterion, on the basis of several cues that could or could not be relevant. The outcome feedback had 25% added noise to simulate real-world experience-based learning. Judgmental strategies acquired were measured by individual multiple linear regression analyses of a test phase (with no feedback) and were compared with self-ratings of cue relevance. In a third experiment, participants were instructed explicitly on cue relevance, with no training phase. The pattern of results suggested that both implicit and explicit cognitive processes influenced judgments and that they may have been sensitive to different task manipulations in the learning phase. On more complex tasks, despite weak explicit learning, explicit processes continued to influence judgments, producing a decrement in performance. These findings explain why studies of expert judgment often show only moderate levels of self-insight, since people have only partial access to the processes determining their judgments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cognition
  • Cues*
  • Humans
  • Judgment*
  • Learning
  • Random Allocation