The association between epistaxis and hypertension is still disputed. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated this association in a sample of 1174 individuals older than 18 years, representative of inhabitants of Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Epistaxis was defined as any episode of non-traumatic nosebleeding after 18 years of age. Hypertension was defined as the mean of two blood pressure readings > or = 160/95 mmHg or the use of antihypertensive drugs. The prevalence of epistaxis and hypertension were 14.7% (95% confidence interval, CI 12.7-16.7) and 24.1% (95% CI 21.7-26.6), respectively. History of epistaxis in the adulthood (risk ratio = 1.24, 95% CI 0.83-1.85), and in the previous 6 months (risk ratio 0.79, 95% CI 0.40-1.56; p = 0.510) were not associated with hypertension after controlling for gender, age, race, history of allergic rhinitis or nasal abnormalities, alcohol abuse, smoking and years of study. History of epistaxis was positively associated with history of allergic rhinitis and inversely associated with years at school. In conclusion, we demonstrated that hypertension is not associated with history of epistaxis in the adulthood in free-living individuals.