The HIV-infected population has been understudied and underserved with respect to risk reduction and prevention interventions. Increases in high-risk sex practices and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) have prompted considerable concern and have led to initiatives to implement routine STD screening and risk reduction counseling among the HIV-infected population. Available evidence indicates that risk reduction counseling can be effective. Improved attention to risk reduction counseling in the HIV medical care setting in needed, and efforts to improve access and maintain linkage to care must be increased. This article summarizes a presentation given by Carlos del Rio, MD, at the March 2003 International AIDS Society-USA course in Atlanta.