The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in regulating cell death. Pathogen- and ozone-induced processes have become important models for the study of cell death regulation by ROS. Hydrogen peroxide and superoxide have emerged as the two key ROS and recent studies have addressed their sources and control of their production. ROS signals interact directly or indirectly with several other signaling pathways, such as nitric oxide, and the stress hormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene. The interaction and balance of these pathways determines whether the cell lives or dies.