Objective: The frequency of functionally important mutations and alleles of genes coding for xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes shows a wide ethnic variation. However, little is known of the frequency distribution of the major allelic variants in the Russian population.
Methods: Using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR/RFLP) genotyping assays and the real-time PCR with fluorescent probes, the frequencies of functionally important variants of the cytochromes P450 (CYP) 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 1A1 as well as arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and P-glycoprotein (MDR1) were determined in a sample of 290 Russian volunteers derived from Voronezh area.
Results: CYP2C9*2 and * 3 alleles were found with allelic frequencies of 10.5% and 6.7%, respectively. The novel intron-2 T>C mutation at exon 2 +73 bp occurred in 24.8% of alleles. CYP2C19*2 and *3 alleles occurred in 11.4% and 0.3%, respectively. Six persons (2.1%) carried two of these CYP2C19 alleles responsible for poor metabolizing activity. Of all subjects, 5.9% were CYP2D6 poor metabolizers, whereas 3.4% were addressed to ultra-rapid metabolizers (CYP2D6*1x2/*1). The CYP1A1*2A allele was found in 4.7%, *2B in 5.0%, *4 in 2.6%, and the 5'-mutations -3219C>T, -3229G>A, and the novel -4335G>A in 6.0%, 2.9% and 26.0% of alleles, respectively. Genotyping of eight different single nucleotide polymorphisms in the NAT2 gene provided in 58.0% a genotype associated with slow acetylation. The MDR1 triple variants G2677T and G2677A in exon 21 had an allelic frequency of 41.9% and 3.3%, respectively, and the variant C3435T in exon 26 one of 54.3%. Frequencies of functionally important haplotypes were calculated.
Conclusion: The overview of allele distribution of important xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes among a Russian population shows similarity to other Caucasians. The data will be useful for clinical pharmacokinetic investigations and for drug dosage recommendations in the Russian population.