Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Review
. 2003 Jul 1;373(Pt 1):1-18.
doi: 10.1042/bj20030405.

Amino Acid Transporters: Roles in Amino Acid Sensing and Signalling in Animal Cells

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Review

Amino Acid Transporters: Roles in Amino Acid Sensing and Signalling in Animal Cells

Russell Hyde et al. Biochem J. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Amino acid availability regulates cellular physiology by modulating gene expression and signal transduction pathways. However, although the signalling intermediates between nutrient availability and altered gene expression have become increasingly well documented, how eukaryotic cells sense the presence of either a nutritionally rich or deprived medium is still uncertain. From recent studies it appears that the intracellular amino acid pool size is particularly important in regulating translational effectors, thus, regulated transport of amino acids across the plasma membrane represents a means by which the cellular response to amino acids could be controlled. Furthermore, evidence from studies with transportable amino acid analogues has demonstrated that flux through amino acid transporters may act as an initiator of nutritional signalling. This evidence, coupled with the substrate selectivity and sensitivity to nutrient availability classically associated with amino acid transporters, plus the recent discovery of transporter-associated signalling proteins, demonstrates a potential role for nutrient transporters as initiators of cellular nutrient signalling. Here, we review the evidence supporting the idea that distinct amino acid "receptors" function to detect and transmit certain nutrient stimuli in higher eukaryotes. In particular, we focus on the role that amino acid transporters may play in the sensing of amino acid levels, both directly as initiators of nutrient signalling and indirectly as regulators of external amino acid access to intracellular receptor/signalling mechanisms.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 87 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. J Cell Physiol. 1995 May;163(2):277-84 - PubMed
    1. Diabetes. 2001 Jul;50(7):1580-7 - PubMed
    1. J Neurosci. 2001 Nov 15;21(22):RC182 - PubMed
    1. J Cell Physiol. 1993 Jul;156(1):56-62 - PubMed
    1. Nat Neurosci. 2000 Oct;3(10):998-1003 - PubMed

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback