Screening by different means has demonstrated the presence, in human and murine neuroblastoma cell lines, of VGF, a gene product identified in a limited number of neuronal and endocrine cells. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western and Northern blot analyses have shown the presence of this protein in some of the tested lines, confirming that VGF is not an ubiquitous molecule. Further studies, using human SK-N-BE and murine N18TG2 lines, showed that VGF expression is upregulated during differentiation, suggesting that various species, including man, express VGF and regulate it in a similar manner. The subcellular localization of the protein, which is associated with vesicles, its electrophoretic molecular profile and its specific release under different conditions are all consistent with results reported in other cells. Neuroblastomas are thus added to the class of VGF-positive cells and provide a new in vitro model for investigation of the structural and functional properties of this protein.