Gamma-glutamyltransferase is a predictor of incident diabetes and hypertension: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

Clin Chem. 2003 Aug;49(8):1358-66. doi: 10.1373/49.8.1358.

Abstract

Background: Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), which maintains cellular concentrations of glutathione, may be a marker of oxidative stress, and GGT itself may produce oxidative stress. We performed a prospective study to examine whether serum GGT predicts diabetes and hypertension.

Methods: Study participants were 4844 black and white men and women 18-30 years of age in 1985-1986; they were reexamined 2, 5, 7, 10, and 15 years later. Year 0 GGT cutpoints were 12, 17, 25, and 36 U/L (overall 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles; the laboratory cutpoints for abnormal are 40 U/L in women and 50 U/L in men). We deleted 32 participants with prevalent diabetes and 140 participants with prevalent hypertension from the respective incidence analyses.

Results: After adjustment for study center, race, sex, and age in proportional hazards regression, the hazard ratios across year 0 GGT categories were 1.0, 1.6, 1.7, 4.0 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-8.1), and 5.5 (2.7-11.1) for 15-year incident diabetes and 1.0, 1.2, 1.7 (1.2-2.2), 2.3 (1.7-3.2), and 2.3 (1.7-3.2) for hypertension. Additional adjustment for year 0 alcohol consumption, body mass index, cigarette smoking, and physical activity attenuated this relationship, but GGT remained a significant predictor.

Conclusions: Serum GGT within a range regarded as physiologically normal is associated with incident diabetes and hypertension. Considering known functionality of GGT, these associations are consistent with a role for oxidative stress in risk for diabetes and hypertension.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Body Mass Index
  • Clinical Enzyme Tests
  • Diabetes Mellitus / diagnosis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / diagnosis*
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prospective Studies
  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase / blood*

Substances

  • gamma-Glutamyltransferase