Down-regulation of glutathione and Bcl-2 synthesis in mouse B16 melanoma cells avoids their survival during interaction with the vascular endothelium

J Biol Chem. 2003 Oct 10;278(41):39591-9. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M303753200. Epub 2003 Jul 24.


B16 melanoma (B16M) cells with high GSH content show high metastatic activity. However, the molecular mechanisms linking GSH to metastatic cell survival are unclear. The possible relationship between GSH and the ability of Bcl-2 to prevent cell death was studied in B16M cells with high (F10) and low (F1) metastatic potential. Analysis of a Bcl-2 family of genes revealed that B16M-F10 cells, as compared with B16M-F1 cells, overexpressed preferentially Bcl-2 (approximately 5.7-fold). Hepatic sinusoidal endothelium-induced B16M-F10 cytotoxicity in vitro increased from approximately 19% (controls) to approximately 97% in GSH-depleted B16M-F10 cells treated with an antisense Bcl-2 oligodeoxynucleotide (Bcl-2-AS). l-Buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine-induced GSH depletion or Bcl-2-AS decreased the metastatic growth of B16M-F10 cells in the liver. However, the combination of l-buthionine (S,R)-sulfoximine and Bcl-2-AS abolished metastatic invasion. Bcl-2-overexpressing B16M-F1/Tet-Bcl-2 and B16M-F10/Tet-Bcl-2 cells, as compared with controls, showed an increase in GSH content, no change in the rate of GSH synthesis, and a decrease in GSH efflux. Thus, Bcl-2 overexpression may increase metastatic cell resistance against oxidative/nitrosative stress by inhibiting release of GSH. In addition, Bcl-2 availability regulates the mitochondrial GSH (mtGSH)-dependent opening of the permeability transition pore complex. Death in B16M-F10 cells was sharply activated at mtGSH levels below 30% of controls values. However, this critical threshold increased to approximately 60% of control values in Bcl-2-AS-treated B16M-F10 cells. GSH ester-induced replenishment of mtGSH levels (even under conditions of cytosolic GSH depletion) prevented cell death. Our results indicate that survival of B16M cells with high metastatic potential can be challenged by inhibiting their GSH and Bcl-2 synthesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Base Sequence
  • Buthionine Sulfoximine / pharmacology
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival
  • Down-Regulation
  • Endothelium, Vascular / pathology
  • Genes, bcl-2*
  • Glutathione / biosynthesis*
  • Male
  • Melanoma, Experimental / genetics
  • Melanoma, Experimental / metabolism*
  • Melanoma, Experimental / pathology
  • Melanoma, Experimental / secondary*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / genetics
  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense / pharmacology
  • Oxidative Stress


  • Oligodeoxyribonucleotides, Antisense
  • Buthionine Sulfoximine
  • Glutathione