Energy availability, not body fatness, regulates reproductive function in women

Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003 Jul;31(3):144-8. doi: 10.1097/00003677-200307000-00008.


The morbid consequences of menstrual disorders in athletes require medical diagnosis and treatment. Reproductive disruption appears to occur when energy availability (dietary energy intake minus exercise energy expenditure) falls below a threshold between 20 and 30 kcal x kgLBM(-1) x d(-1), and some women may be more severely affected than others by subthreshold energy availability.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Body Composition
  • Energy Intake
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Menstruation Disturbances / metabolism*
  • Reproduction / physiology*
  • Sports